Here it goes directly to
about Asthma' (what
happens when asthma occurs / number of patients / economic costs of asthma /
death by asthma)
The project 'safe haven' of the American Lung Association of Hawaii (ALAH)
Newspaper articles about the project 'Safe Haven'
Recommendations of the American Lung Association of Hawaii (ALAH)
Newspaper articles about 'fireworks and asthma'
connection with fireworks one mostly thinks first of the numerous explosion
consequences and burns as well as of eye and ear damages and hand injuries. And
one often forgets another important
aspect: The smoke of fireworks consists mainly of fine toxic dusts
matter, PM10) that easily enter the lungs and
represents a real danger
for those already sick as well as for the healthy. In addition, fireworks
let-offs are the result of explosions releasing a mixture of chemical components. In a fireworks burn-down a number of chemical reactions take place among
the particles involved (so-called conversion of matter); at the same time a
large number of new substances are generated, substances of largely unknown
composition and toxicity.
danger for those already sick as well as for the healthy. In addition, fireworks let-offs are the result of explosions releasing a mixture of chemical components. In a fireworks burn-down a number of chemical reactions take place among the particles involved (so-called conversion of matter); at the same time a large number of new substances are generated, substances of largely unknown composition and toxicity.
measurements, which attest increased contents of pyrotechnic elements in fine
dust (PM10), are available from the USA [Perry], the Netherlands [Noordijk]
and Switzerland [BRISKA]. It was shown in Basel that e.g. the concentration
of potassium on August 1 was approximately 100 times higher than before or
after that date. While on ordinary days potassium was mainly contained in
the coarse particles, on August 1
potassium was attested mainly in small particles. Emissions of fireworks
mainly in small particles.
mainly in small particles.
the Federal State of Washington the metal contents measured in fine dust PM2.5
on 4th July 1990 (American national holiday) showed that the concentrations of
the characteristic content materials of fireworks, such as strontium and barium,
rose around 20 respectively 50 times in the daily average.
the Stockholm Water Festival in 1996, air pollutant levels were measured before
and after the fireworks display. Levels of airborne arsenic were found to be
twice as normal, while levels of mercury, cadmium, lead, copper, zinc and
chromium were 4 to 5 times higher than normal.
The Swiss Agency for the Environment, Forests and Landscape (SAEFL) concludes in its study "Fireworks":
Ø Investigations in the country and abroad show that increased metal contents in the air on special holidays have to be attributed to fireworks.
Ø Fine dust originating from fireworks differ in their composition substantially from types of dust from other sources of emission. The health risks are only insufficiently investigated.
of fireworks are a well-known cause of health
affected are persons who suffer from illnesses of the respiratory system, multiple chemical sensitivity
(MCS) as well as
heart and circulation disturbances.
article "New Year's Eve with protective mask. Some humans suffer heavily under New Year's Eve and 1st August fireworks: The poisonous smoke leads to dizziness, heart
disturbances and asthma attacks." describes the health impairments induced by the poisonous chemicals of fireworks by some people with MCS and asthmatic
please read also http://www.stop-fireworks.org/injured_persons.htm
where people with MCS and/or asthma describe in an impressive way their health
problems caused by the poisonous chemical-mix of fireworks.). Nevertheless
people extremely hurt by the
chemical-mix of fireworks who must stay behind closed windows and in addition
have to wear a paper or gauze mask to protect themselves are not taken seriously
by their surroundings, by authorities, nor by a majority of physicians unfortunately.
countries take the situation essentially more seriously (à different newspaper
articles and scientific articles). E.g. Gregg Kishaba, the "director of
asthma education" of the American
Lung Association of Hawaii recommends among other things: ("Fireworks sales
expected to be lower for new Year's - Fewer retailers have obtained licenses,
and fewer people are expected to buy them", 26.12.2002, http://starbulletin.com/2002/12/26/news/story3.html):
Stay indoors with windows and doors closed and use an air conditioner or
air purifier with a good filter during the heaviest fireworks celebration.
Ø Wear a paper or gauze mask to decrease smoke inhalation.
in addition The Lung Association offers free dust respirators and of coordinates
kamaaina rates at 13 hotels to at-risk resident.)
of these facts have long been well-known to
the authorities; for years
citizens have complained again and again. The complaints are addressed
primarily to the Swiss Agency for the Environment, Forests and Landscape
(SAEFL), the central office for explosives and pyrotechnics in the Federal
Office for Police and to various police stations.
is not by chance that the SAEFL writes in its report "ENVIRONMENTAL
MATERIALS NR. 140, environmentally hazardous materials, fireworks: Impact on the
environment and safety aspects 2001": <<Today's fireworks'
consumption amounts to 1000-2000 t/a. This causes in particular air pollution
and danger of accidents. Humans with illnesses of the respiratory system and
circulation problems must be
advised to avoid fireworks.>> (P. 9) and <<Also foreign
investigations... show that
complaints can come from handicapped persons with chronic respiratory illnesses.>>
(P. 12) as well as <<Air
pollution above all is not to be ignored when
dealing with large fireworks. With the emissions of fine dust particles entering the lungs (PM10) one moves within the range
of detriments for sensitive persons.>> (P. 13)
the report - surprisingly - concludes <<air quality limits
are no doubt observed>> and that there exists
<<no acute health hazard>>.
some paragraphs covering health protection of its people/citizens can be found
in different Swiss laws, authorities, politicians, physicians etc. neglect in an
incomprehensible way that part of the population with the heaviest health
impairments caused by poisonous chemical-mix from fireworks.
majority of the remaining population does not understand why the specifically poisonous chemical-mix from fireworks leads for more and more
humans to heaviest health impairments and, yes, even to a death threat.
Information on this subject is very much needed – and
could perhaps influence the
one or the other to feel responsible towards
his/her neighbours and the environment and to renounce - without waiting for
additional legal regulations – to letting-off fireworks altogether.
his/her neighbours and the environment and to renounce - without waiting for
additional legal regulations – to letting-off fireworks altogether.
* * *
[No authors listed]
Atemnot durch Feuerwerk bei Kindern mit Asthma.
Praxis–Depesche, 2001; 15(5):11
Feuerwerk führt nicht nur zu äusseren Verletzungen. Substanzen im Verbrennungsrauch der Raketen und Knallfrösche können lebensbedrohliche Asthmaanfälle hervorrufen.
FAZIT: Feuerwerksrauch kann für Asthmatiker lebensbedrohlich sein.
à Bezieht sich auf den Artikel "Fatal and near-fatal asthma in children exposed to fireworks" von Becker JM et al. (Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 2000,85:512-13)
W, Daniels A, Dickinson L, Hertlein F, Morrow J, Margolis S, Dinh Dinh V
pollution and health
J Environmental Studies, 1975; 7:183-192
This paper discusses the adverse health effects of air and noise pollution caused by fireworks episodes on Oahu, Hawaii.
was found that fireworks activities on New Year's Eve on Oahu are responsible
for an increase in total suspended particulates by an average of 300% at 14
locations and by about 700% in the lung penetrating size ranges at one location.
X-ray microanalysis showed that the particles collected during the control
period consisted mainly of halites and pollen, which are common to Hawaii's air,
but those collected during the fireworks activities consisted mostly of
potassium calcium and sulfur.
light of the fact that a large number of people with a heart condition or any of
the many varieties of respiratory ailments find their state of health worsened
during such fireworks episodes, a reasonable solution to this problem would be
to display fireworks at a remote place under controlled conditions.
W, Dickinson L, Weiner B, Costello G
adverse health effects due to air pollution from fireworks.
Med J.1972 Nov-Dec;31(6):459-65
conclusion it can be stated that the suffering of those afflicted by respiratory
diseases is quite real during such a fireworks episode…
would therefore appear that the very high air pollution levels during the
fireworks episode might have been responsible for the higher occurrence of
respiratory diseases. It is recommended to display fireworks only along the
Waikiki coastline to protect a large segment of the Honolulu populace from
adverse health effects…
JM, Iskandrian S, Conkling J
and near-fatal asthma in children exposed to fireworks.
Allergy Asthma Immunol (United States), Dec 2000;85(6 Pt 1):512-3
MCP Hahnemann School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA
We are reporting two patients who had severe
asthma exacerbation shortly after having exposure to different types of
fireworks. One patient had a respiratory arrest and was resuscitated, but
subsequently expire. The second patient was able to treated aggressively and
avoided intubation. CONCLUSIONS: These cases demonstrate risks that fireworks
may present to the asthmatic child and that patient's with asthma should
exercise caution when observing or participating in fireworks demonstrations.
BRISKA (Basler Risikostudie Aussenluft)
Braun-Fahrländer Ch, Theis G, Künzli N, Camenzind M, Röösli M, Monn Ch
Gesundheitsrisiko durch Luftschadstoffe in der Region Basel. 1. Bericht der Studie BRISKA.
Hrsg. Lufthygieneamt beider Basel, Liestal & Institut für Sozial- und Präventivmedizin, Basel (1999)
"Kurzfassung der Studie BRISKA (Basler Risikostudie Aussenluft)"
Institut für Sozial- und Präventivmedizin der Universität Basel
Lufthygieneamt beider Basel, Liestal
"Gesundheitsrisiko durch Luftschadstoffe in der Region Basel, 1. Bericht der Studie BRISKA, Analyse der Immissionsmessungen"
"Gesundheitsrisiko durch Luftschadstoffe in der Region Basel, 2. Bericht der Studie BRISKA, Abschätzung der kanzerogenen und nicht-kanzerogenen Gesundheitsrisiken"
DD, Perry KD, Cahill TA, Copeland SA
of indoor pyrotechnic displays on the air quality in the Houston Astrodome.
of the Air and Waste Management Association. 1999; 49:156-60
and coarse particulate mass samples were collected during baseball games with
pyrotechnic displays and control games without displays. The average fine and
coarse particulate masses were 173 and 141 micrograms per cubic meter,
respectively, for the one-hour period immediately following the pyrotechnic
displays. The particulate mater generated by the pyrotechnic displays was
composed of the following elements (arranged from the most to least abundant):
K, S, Mg, Ti, Cl, Si, Ca, Al, Sr, V, Zn, Mn, and Pb…
"Silvester mit Atemschutz-Maske. Manche Menschen leiden stark unter Silvester- und 1.-August-Feuerwerk: Der giftige Qualm verursacht bei ihnen Schwindel, Herzstörungen und Asthma-Anfälle."
[ "New Year's Eve with protective mask. Some humans suffer heavily under New Year's Eve and 1st August fireworks: The poisonous smoke leads to dizziness, heart disturbances and asthma attacks."] [Article in German]
Puls-Tipp Nr. 12, 1.12.2002
Hirai K, Yamazaki Y, Okada K, Furuta S, Kubo K
eosinophilic pneumonia associated with smoke from fireworks.
Med (Japan), 2000 May,39(5):401-3
of Internal Medicine, Nagano Municipal Hospital
Although the patient had been a habitual cigarette smoker for over 4 months, he had had not any respiratory distress. After he inhaled smoke from fireworks for 3 consecutive nights, the patient began to complain of cough, fever and dyspnea. He was diagnosed as AEP. In this patient, inhaling of smoke from fireworks was clinically suspected to be associated with the induction of AEP (acute eosinophilic pneumonia).
Luchtverontreiniging door vuurwerk tijdens jaarwisseling van 1993-1994.
Rapport Nr. 722101007. Bilthooven 1994.
Perry Kevin D
of outdoor pyrotechnic displays on the regional air quality of western
of the Air and Waste Management Association, 1999;49:146-55
Department, San José State University, San José, California
Data from a PM 2.5 particulate matter
monitoring network was used to quantify the effects of outdoor pyrotechnic
displays on the regional air quality of western Washington State. Linear
regression and principal component analysis demonstrated that the fine
particulate matter generated by these displays was primarily composed of Sr, K,
V, Ti, Ba, Cu, Pb, Mg, Al, S, Mn, Zn, and soot…
…The PM 2.5 aerosol monitoring network
tracked the pyrotechnic smoke plume for a period of two days as it was advected
by low-level winds. The geometric mass mean diameter of the K particles was ~0.7
mm after transport of ~100 km. In the absence of rain, which is the primary sink
for particles of this size, the particulate matter generated by the pyrotechnic
displays could have an atmospheric residence time of more than one week.
Implicatons: …These factors indicate that
pyrotechnic displays could lead to violations of the aforementioned NAAQS in
populous regions of the United States where regional particulate mass
concentrations are high during summer…
K, Mor S, Kaushik CP
variation in air quality associated with firework events: a case study.
Environ Monit (England), Apr 2003, 5(2):260-4
Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Guru Jambheshwar University, Hisar-125001, India
The effect of fireworks on air quality was assessed from the ambient concentrations of various air pollutants (SO2, NO2, PM10 and TSP) during Diwali festival in Hisar city (India), in November 1999. The extensive use of fireworks was found to be related to short-term variation in air quality. During the festival the concentration of SO2 was observed to be increased approximately 10-fold at few sites, whereas the concentrations of NO2, PM10 and TSP increased 2-3 times, compared to the data collected on a typical winter day in December 1999. The maximum NO2 concentration was observed a day after the festival. The diurnal pattern of the above pollutants showed a slight increase in the night. The levels of these pollutants observed during Diwali were found to be moderately high, which can be associated with serious health impacts.
S, Khillare PS, Jyethi DS, Hasan A, Parween M NEU!
speciation of respirable suspended particulate matter during a major fireworks
festival in India
of Hazardous Materials. 2010 [Article in Press] Available online 18 August 2010
respirable particles … were characterized with respect to 20 elements, 16
polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), elemental and organic carbon (EC and OC)
during a major firework event – the "Diwali2 festival in Delhi, India. The
event recorded extremely high 24-h PM10 levels … and massive loadings of Ba …, Mg …, Al
… and EC… Elemental concentrations as high as these have not been reported
previously for any firework episode. …
Chemical characterization of firework aerosol is important for two reasons.
Firstly, these events give rise to extremely high levels of atmospheric
pollutants that have substantial health effects. Short-term particulate
pollution episodes are associated with cardiopulmonary ailments, while similar
effects are also seen for elevated SO2
and NOx levels. Firework smoke is
known to lead to acute eosinophilic pneumonia. Barium-rich aerosols released
from fireworks may be responsible for a significant rise in the number of asthma
cases. … Secondly, these episodes are important from the point of view
of atmospheric chemistry as well.
Abstract under http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6TGF-50T9X25-2&_user=10&_coverDate=08%2F18%2F2010&_rdoc=1&_fmt=high&_orig=search&_origin=search&_sort=d&_docanchor=&view=c&_searchStrId=1452410755&_rerunOrigin=scholar.google&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=5b71bd34648706a9145787bd19845a26&searchtype=a
Smith Richard Merrill, Dinh Vu-Dinh
Changes in Forced Expiratory Flow Due to Air Pollution From Fireworks
Environmental Research, 1975;9(3):321-331
Department of Physiology, University of Hawaii, School of Medicine, Honolulu, Hawaii
Spirometry in humans and air sampling have been performed during a brief but intense bout of air pollution due to exploding fireworks on New Year's Eve in Honolulu, Hawaii.
* * *
the poisonous chemical mix discharged by fireworks
becomes more and more a question of life or death for an increasing number of
asthma patients and/or persons with multiple chemicals sensitivity, one must
know a few facts about these diseases and about breathing.
Ø Volume of the lung of an adult is about six litres
Ø Volume of one normal breath is half a litre
Ø An adult breathes about twelve to fifteen times per minute
Ø After breathing out, there remains at least 1 ½ litre of air in the lung in order for the lung to continue being active
Ø An adult breathes approximately 15'000 litres of air daily; it is inevitable that by doing so also gases and particles are transported via mouth, nose, bronchial tube, bronchia, bronchioles and lung vescicles and are accumulated or deposited there
Ø Lung suface is larger than 100 m2
Ø No other organ of the human body is so closely related to the environment. Many lung diseases are directly due to or depend entirely on environmental factors.
Ø The lung filters the same quantity of air per day as a hot-air-balloon needs to be filled.
How does oxygen enter the body? And what happens then?
oxygen arrives deep in the lung through nose, larynx and the large bronchi. In
the alveoli the oxygen enters the blood which transports it to the coloring
material of the red blood corpuscles. These
carry the oxygen further to the tiny capillaries from where it finally
arrives at the end-consumer, the cells.
our air contains poisonous chemicals or excessive particles and
dust, we inhale them automatically. Thus each breath results in soiling
our system in and outside. Our respiratory organs and our skin become irritated
and through the lung the poisons enter the blood and finally our internal body.
à one of the world most frequent diseases of the respiratory system
à one of the world most long-term diseases
à ranks among the most frequent chronic children diseases
à a global health problem
What happens with asthma?
Asthma is an inflammation of the bronchial mucous membrane which it narrowst in three ways:
- the inflamed mucous membrane starts swelling
- it increases the slimy mucous and
- the surrounding muscles get cramped
Imagine you would have asthma...
Hold your nose for two minutes and breathe during this time through a straw.
ever inflated a balloon, knows how strenous this can be. After the fifth balloon
one needs to recover one's breath. But such a recovery is often not possible for
asthma patients. Those with severe asthma
exhale continuously as if they were blowing balloons on and on. Healthy people
can hardly imagine how exhausting this is for the body.
Affected by asthma are in
- Switzerland: about 500'000 people; about 10% of all children (around 100'000), 8'000 per year become asthmatic + 7% are adults (1); more than ¼ of the entire population have difficulties in breathing when under heavy physical efforts
Germany: 4 to 5 million or about 5% of all adults and up to 10% of
children (2); since 1994 the number of boys with breathing problems rose to
around 13%, that o girls to around 70% (3)
Great Britain: 10 million people; 1/3
of all 13 to 14 years old (4). Physicians register 20'000 cases each week
in Great Britain and Ireland.
Australia: ¼ of all children (5)
- America: 17.3 million (6), of it 5.3 million under 18 (7/8); the number of female asthmatics doubled between 1980 and 1998 (of 6.7 million) (9)
- Canada, the USA, Australia, New Zealand, Great Britain, Scotland: up to 36% of children aged 13 to 14 (10)
(1) Auskunft Lungenliga Schweiz März 2004 / Medienmitteilung der Lungenliga Schweiz zum Welt-Asthma-Tag vom 4. Mai 2004
International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood, ISAAC
(4) GINA, Global Initiative for Asthma, www.ginasthma.com
(5) Peat et al., Medical Journal of Australia 1995, Vol. 153, pp. 22-26
(6) Action Against Asthma. A Strategic Plan for the Department of Health and Human Services. May 2000
(7) CDC, 1998
(8) Allergy & Asthma Network Mothers of Asthmatics AANMA
(9) Action Against Asthma. A Strategic Plan for the Department of Health and Human Services. May 2000
(10) ISAAC-Studie, bekannteste und grösste Studie zu allergischen Erkrankungen im Kindesalter, die von 1992 bis 1996 in allen Erdteilen über 460'000 Kinder im Alter von 13 bis 14 Jahren untersucht hat
fear that the number of asthma illnesses will increase in the next ten years by
25% (SONDE Info 27 September 2001).
The economical costs of asthma
enormous and comparable with the expenditures for AIDS or tuberculosis. In
Switzerland alone total costs amount to approximately 1.125 billion
Swiss francs. In America health costs for asthma alone amount to more
than $9.8 trillion annually (American Lung Association, 1998).
Death due to asthma
in good health consider asthma as an annoying but in the long run harmless
disease. That is a totally wrong
calculation! Asthma belongs to the diseases with a possible deadly end.
Asthma mortality in
- Switzerland: 200 to 300 people per year (1)
Germany: 5'000 to 6'000 persons per year à
this means more than deaths caused by traffic!! (2)
- Great Britain: 1'500 patients annually
- America: more than 5'300 Tote deaths annually (3) and/or 15 persons each day; more than 10 million school days are lost annually because of asthma (4) and is therefore the main cause for lost school days (5). [In 2000 4'487 persons died of asthma of whom 223 were children under 18 years of age. (6)]
(1) Medienmitteilung der Lungenliga Schweiz zum Welt-Asthma-Tag vom 4. Mai 2004
(3) CDC, 1997
(4) National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease, 1997
Health Care Use, and Mortality. 2000-2001." National Center for Health
Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
of the most well-known man dead of asthma is the South African heart surgeon and
pioneer of heart transplantation, Christiaan Barnard. He died of an asthma
attack at the pool of his hotel on vacation in Cyprus on 1.9.2001 at the age of
The Israeli conductor, David Shallon, died shortly before his 50th birthday in Tokyo of an asthma attack. http://www.nmz.de/nmz2/kiz/Forum1/HTML/000113.html
The following pollutants e.g. occur in large quantities in fireworks and are well-known to be damaging the respiratory system and the lung:
Fine dust (PM10)
Dioxine and Furane
Ø increased concentrations result in humans in irritation of the skin and the mucous membranes, headache, vomiting. Persons with respiratory diseases are particularly dangered! Asthmatics react strongly to rising concentrations; something similar applies to infants
Ø damages plants; they can wither
Ø has the following effects: turning red, swelling, increased secretion of the moist mucous membranes of the eyes and of upper part of the breathing system. In extreme cases cells perish (cell necrosis)
Fine Dust (PM10)
Ø Fireworks smoke consists mainly of lung-entering poisonous fine dust and is dangerous not only to diseased but also to healthy persons!
Ø PM10 ("Particulate matter smaller than 10 microns") are fine particles which are smaller than 10 micrometers (µm).
Ø can deposit and transport irritating and toxic substances; particles transported to the alveoli can also be absorbed by the blood and distribted in the organism
Ø With heavy PM10 charge we inhale millions of fine particles with each breath. Larger particles (5-10µm) are already filtered in nose and throat; smaller particles (3-5µm) arrive in the bronchial tube, the bronchi (2-3µm), the bronchioles (1-2µm) and in the alveoli (0.1-1µm) - and finally in the blood circulation! These particles can no longer be coughed up and as deposits lead in the long term to inflammations particularly with asthmatics, but also with healthy people although they may not notice an irritation.
Ø The consequenses are: cough, increased infection of the upper and lower respiratory system, bronchitis, difficulty in breathing and also asthma attacks, colds, diseases of the heart and circulation system, cancer of the lung, etc.
Ø can <<damage the respiratory system (...) and cause high blood pressure and lung diseases>> (in accordance with a BUWAL study of 1999)
Ø can arrive via the lung in the blood circulation and thus damage the nervous system and the brain
Ø in the smallest concentrations already, plant cells can wither; cannot be disintegrated biologically
* * *
of the American Lung Association of Hawaii (ALAH):
people complained about the dense fog of fireworks-smoke of Silvester 1998/New
of the millennium celebration, a lot of people are anticipating this will be the
biggest or worst fireworks situation ever.
In Hawaii more than 15% of the population – that means about 200,000
people - suffer from lung ailments; of that number 46,000 suffer from asthma.
Hawaii has the highest mortality rate per capita in the nation for asthma
is tangible evidence of one aspect of the damage done by fireworks. People are
suffering because they have trouble breathing. In addition, fireworks injure
people who use them and are a major fire hazard.
Project 'Safe Haven'
the American Lung Association of Hawaii (ALAH) startet its 'Save Haven 2000'
pilot project to give people with conditions such as asthma, chronic bronchitis,
lung cancer and emphysema a refuge from the smoke of fireworks.
most of America sets off fireworks on the Fourth of July, in Hawaii most
fireworks will be set off during New Year's celebrations.
plan is to encourage movie theaters to stay open until the smoke clears. They
are the most desirable venues because they are enclosed and air-conditioned, and
have entertainment, food, restrooms, comfortable seating and parking. While
there is a question as to whether the air-conditioning and filter systems can
keep all the smoke from entering the theaters, it's better than not being in a
clean-air venue at all and being with all the fireworks outside.
outdoor areas won't be affected by smoke and also are safe havens: e.g.
campsites, where fireworks are illegal on the property.
A list of smoke-free environments for New Year's Eve
Private organisations collaborated with the ALAH to offer safe havens to
the people who need shelter of the noxious cloud of fireworks smoke. In the
meantime, a list exists of safe havens: movie theaters, malls and other
such air-conditioned spaces, but also campsites around the island.
In December 2000, an asthma/allergy specialist along with a pharmacist,
respiratory therapist and technical specialists has given advice and an
interactive educational program was been set up at two shopping centers to help
those with respiratory ailments. There were conducted asthma screenings, discussed
inhalers and nebulizers and how to use respirator masks to cope with the
ALAH will offer free masks to those who need them.
This solution won't work for everyone
'Safe Haven' is not a solution for all people with lung ailments. Elderly and/or
the infirm are not mobile enough to escape to the offered safe places. These
housebound people will have - like all the times before - to stay inside their
houses/apartments during the heaviest fireworks celebrations, tape up the
windows, let the air conditioner or air purifier run and pray that the smoke
of fireworks will not get into their rooms.
Newspaper articles about the project 'Safe Haven':
American Lung Association of Hawaii (ALAH) New Year's Eve program "Safe Haven": http://www.ala-hawaii.org/safehaven.asp
leave them breathless", 19.4.1999: http://starbulletin.com/1999/04/19/editorial/chang.html
"Project breath of fresh air", 5.11.1999: http://starbulletin.com/1999/11/05/news/story10.html
"Preparing for worst in Jan. 1 fireworks" (The
issue: People with breathing problems are looking for refuge from New Year's
fireworks. Our view: The use of fireworks has reached unacceptable proportions
and must be banned.), 8.11.1999: http://starbulletin.com/1999/11/08/editorial/editorials.html
"Safe Havens' to
offer relief from fireworks. Movie theaters and campsites welcome folks with
lung ailments for a safer New Year's Eve", 23.12.1999: http://starbulletin.com/1999/12/23/news/story6.html
looks like a war zone on New Year's Eve2, 31.12.1999: http://www.hannibal.net/stories/123199/fea_1230990021.html
"Honolulu's big bang; Take a deep breath or
head for cover when fireworks blast on New Year's", 6.12.1999: http://the.honoluluadvertiser.com/1999/Dec/06/localnews3.html
respiratory project receives good response", 1.1.2000: http://starbulletin.com/2000/01/01/news/story6.html
'Safe Havens' offer smoke-free respite on
New Year's Eve", 9.12.2000: http://starbulletin.com/2000/12/09/news/story11.html
the Air", 13.12.2000: http://starbulletin.com/2000/12/13/features/stuffs.html
"Escape to a smoke-free place on New Year's
Eve", 21.12.2000: http://the.honoluluadvertiser.com/2000/Dec/21/1221islandlife16.html
"Oahu braces for smoky New Year – Businesses Provide 'Safe Havens'", 28.12.2000:
"Group urges caution in
New Year's smoke. The American Lung Association offers tips for surviving the
night.", 30.12.2001: http://starbulletin.com/2001/12/30/news/story4.html
sales expected to be lower for New Year's. Fewer retailers have obtained
licenses, and fewer people are expected to buy them", 26.12.2002: http://starbulletin.com/2002/12/26/news/story3.html
* * *
à Another 'Safe Haven'
sufferers find 'Safe Haven' on New Year's Eve
past New Year's Eve, the medical center's ground floor conference rooms were the
site of a 'Safe Haven', similar to the Safe Haven program on Oahu. Hilo Medical
Center provided an enclosed area as a respite from celebratory fireworks for
those suffering from asthma or other respiratory conditions. 31.12.2001/1.1.2002
* * *
The recommends – especially for people with chronic breathing problems, such as asthma, bronchitits or emphysema – the following precautions to decrease problems because of fireworks smoke on New Year's Eve:
plenty (especially warm beverages) to loosen mucus and help you cough.
indoors with windows and doors closed and use an air conditioner or air purifier
with a good filter during the heaviest fireworks celebrations.
a paper or gauze mask to decrease smoke inhalation unless it interferes with
* * *
about "fireworks and asthma":
"Close windows vs firecrackers"
Exposure to firecrackers and exposure to ashfall from an exploding volcano have
almost the same hazardous effects, which is why health officials have advised
the people to close the windows of their houses when firecrackers are set off
during the holidays revelries. National Epidemiology Center head Dr. Eric Tayag
advised residents to keep their windows closed especially during Christmas and
New Year's Eves, when many fireworks are lighted at the height of revelries.
"Fireworks are like ash fall in the sense that they both pose threats to
our respiratory systems. They may cause asthma and aggravate other respiratory
problems. So those with asthma must keep their medication handy," Tayag
said in an interview.
He said people
with asthma should wear masks as protection against the pollution as
air-conditioners and ionizer machines may not be enough to keep the particles
from entering the house.
Source: "Health exec advises: Close windows vs firecrackers", 24.12.2009, http://www9.gmanews.tv/story/180115/health-exec-advises-close-windows-vs-firecrackers
"The Provincial Health Office warns the public of the effects of firecrackers"
San Jose, Antique/Philippines.
Provincial Health Office issued a warning to the public on the ill effects of
fire crackers that aside from being burnt, injured or disabled it can also pose
serious respiratory problem like asthma and other complications if excessive
smoke from firecrackers are inhaled. …
Source: "PHO warns the public of the effects of firecrackers", 24.12.2009, http://www.thenewstoday.info/2009/12/24/pho.warns.the.public.of.the.effects.of.firecrackers.html
fireworks contribute to poor air quality"
by Utah Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ)
by Utah Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ)
Utah Division of Air Quality (DAQ) supports Governor Jon Huntsman's ban on
personal fireworks this Pioneer Day (24.7.), not only because of wildland fire
dangers but also because fireworks pump fine-particle pollution in the air,
prompting an unhealthy spike in air pollution that make it difficult for people
exposures to the particle pollution can aggravate asthma attacks and lung
disease. In people with heart disease, short-term exposures have been linked to
heart attacks and arrhythmias. 17.7.2007
"Fireworks" by Utah Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ), Division of Air Quality (DAQ)
Division on Air Quality would like to help Utah residents celebrate these
important days (Fourth of July and Pioneer Day 24.7.) safely by reminding
everyone of the potential for high concentrations of smoke associated with
fireworks displays. This smoke is largely particulate matter (PM). In prior
years, DAQ has monitored extremely high concentrations of both PM10 and PM2.5
associated with fireworks displays. … Those most affected are the young, the
elderly, and those sensitive individuals with respiratory conditions.
exposures to PM (hours or days) can aggravate lung disease, causing asthma
attacks and acute bronchitis, and may also increase susceptibility to
respiratory infections. In people with heart disease, short-term exposures have
been linked to heart attacks and arrhythmias. June 2007
bad day a year is enough to give Oahu air quality a black eye. New Year's Eve
results in a grade of 'D'" by the American lung Association of Hawaii
Yee, president of the American Lung Association of Hawaii (ALAH), said the high
particulate pollution on New Year's Eve is more than just a black mark on Hawaii's
reputation; it's also a danger to the tens of thousands of children and adults
who suffer from lung-related disease.
than 150,000 Hawaii residents are afflicted with one or more of these diseases
– pediatric and adult asthma, chronic bronchitis and emphysema," Yee said.
"Each of them is potentially at risk from particulate pollution, and the
American Lung Association of Hawaii therefore continues to seek restrictions on
the excessive use of fireworks at New Year's."
said that the ALAH is engaged in attempts to curtail the annual New Year's
fireworks pollution because of the threat it poses to public health.
your breath, there is poison in the air" by Avishek G Dastidar
on environment and health have repeatedly pointed out that firecrackers burst on
Divali spell doom for the community's health.
study by NGO Toxics Link has found significant quantity of poisonous heavy
metals like lead and cadmium in the composition of firecrackers. The fumes
contain oxides of sulphur, phosphorous, nitrogen and carbon, which are highly
harmful, it says. "The oxides come into contact with
moisture while passing from nostrils to the lungs and form acids, which cause
immense damage to the body," says Ravi Agarwal, director, Toxics
Link. No wonder, cases of asthma nd bronchitis rise by 35 per cent during this
season, says Dr. Gupta.
are a variety of other problems (in relationship to fireworks), which, perhaps,
go unnoticed. "Firecrackers during Diwali can act as a source of irritation
and prolonged exposure may aggravate certain psychiatric conditions as well,"
says Dr Rajesh Sagar, associate professor, department of psychiatry, AIIMS.
Women in later stages of pregnancy should also be careful. A day's exposure to
Diwali din can harm the foetus. "The list of health hazards is virtually
endless. People should ask themselves if bursting crackers is worth the price
ones health has to pay even long after Diwali is over," says Dr Deka.
"Do you enjoy Diwali with firecrackers?"
pollution is tackled but not air pollution, say asthma patients. Asthma patients
want ban on polluting crackers. During Diwali, smoke from firecrackers can be
very painful for asthma patients. Hospitals do see a hike in asthma patients
during this time. Most patients leave the city during the festival. Bursting of
firecrackers increase level of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, nitrogen dioxide,
hydrocarbons, hydrogen sulphide and suspended particulate matter.
the entire nation looks forward to Diwali as a celebration of life, 10 laks
asthma and bronchitis patients in Mumbai begin readying their life savers –
inhalers, nebulisers or whatever gives them the breath of life.
for the first time, the Asthma and Bronchitis Association of India (ABAI) has
written a letter to the chief minister, Maharashtra Pollution Control Board and
the commissioner of police asking them to consider a ban on crackers emitting
article was posted 16.10.2006 under
but is perhaps originally from www.mumbaimirror.com?)
"Breath-taking Fireworks – in More Ways than One!" By Bob Maddox, air and Radiation Management Administration,
somewhat breath-taking visually, holiday fireworks do contain health-harming
chemical compounds. Independence Day fireworks release particles that create a
temporary health threat to those with sensitive respiratory systems. Except for
people who have asthma, or are very sensitive to chemicals, few of us are aware
that lighting fireworks can pose respiratory harm.
"Yenshui festival threatens air quality, experts warn"
Yenshui/Taiwan fireworks festival, 12.2.2006: environmental officials cautioned yesterday those who suffer from asthma or allergies and senior citizens and children to avoid visiting the small town in southern county of Tainan today when massive fireworks will set off there to celebrate the traditional Lantern Festival. EPA officials (Environmental Protection Administration) also reminded festival visitors to equip themselves with surgical masks as the medical-grade 'N95' mask, because debris can pass through normal gauze masks.
festival's peak in Feb 2004: particulate matter (PM) density was recorded at
326.5mg per square meter.
New Year's Fireworks Tradition is Dangerous"
nearly 9,600 people in the nation went to hospital emergency rooms for treatment
of fireworks injuries, according to Straub Hospital. The hospital's Dr. Jeffrey
Kam, of the allergy and immunology department, said nearly 79,000 asthma
patients in the islands – including 25,000 children – suffer every New Year's
because of the related smoke.
"Many seek New Year safety gear. Straub Clinic passes out free respirator masks for those sensitive to smoke"
than 300 people snatched up the masks yesterday for themselves or loved ones.
program's founder and chief of Straub's allergy and immunology department, Dr.
Jeffrey Kam, said nearly 79,000 asthma patients in the islands – including
25,000 children – suffer every New Year's thanks to fireworks smoke.
them the fireworks smell is almost like breathing Clorox bleach,>> Dr. Kam
said. <<We want to have fun, yet we forgot the people who have breathing
"Hawaii's air quality earns a 'D' due to New Year's fireworks orgy. Lung
Association's 'Safe Haven' Program offers advice, respite from the worst air
pollution of the year."
For 364 days of the year, Hawaii's air is virtually free of particulate pollution thanks to a low industrial base and thousands of miles of fresh air surrounding the state. But on that other day, residents breathe a deadly mix of pollutants. Fireworks on New Year's Eve explode so much junk into the air that the American Lung Association (ALA) awards Hawaii a grade of 'D' for air particle pollution for the entire year.
<<It's like someone who drives wonderfully 364 days a year but
smashes the car every New Year's eve,>> says Sterling Yee, president of
the ALAH. He stressed that Hawaii's annual New Year's Eve fireworks celebration
is a serious public health concern. The ALA would not give the state a 'D' for
the entire year if it were otherwise.
American Lung Association of Hawaii,
Safety Systems Hawaii, Inc., December 2005: "Safety Awareness Sheet: A Breathless New Years Display"
The greatest health threat of fireworks is respiratory damage. … Everyone is
at some risk to respiratory damage… Short-term, high level fine dust emissions
lead to respiratory tract complaints such as chronic coughing, expectoration,
and shortness of breath. They can also cause bronchitis and asthma attacks,
heart arrhythmia, job absences, increased intake of medication for asthmatics,
emergency medical visits, and ...
http://www.safetysystemshawaii.com/pdf/fireworks_respiratory.pdf oder http://22.214.171.124/search?q=cache:eF7CQqw3No8J:www.safetysystemshawaii.com/pdf/fireworks_respiratory.pdf+american+lung+association+of+Hawaii+fireworks+fine+dust&hl=de&ct=clnk&cd=3&gl=ch
"Enjoy a safe Diwali" by Doctor NDTV
crackers could be a causative factor leading to numerous health hazards. The
harmful chemicals emitted through smoke are known to cause asthma, allergic
rhinitis, bronchitis and other respiratory problems.
You can read the following on the site of the Environmental Health Houston.org:
<<Children who live or attend school near freeways or major streets have
higher rates of allergies, cough, and respiratory symptoms. Emissions from
industry, cars, trucks, and also offroad vehicles and to a lesser extent those
from barbecues, fireworks, restaurants, garden equipment, and agricultural fires
can aggravate asthma.>>
"Fire officials still want total ban on fireworks"
In Waipahu and Pearl city the smoke was so thick, Douglas Yee, past president
and board member for the American Lung Association, had difficulty seeing the
tail lights on the car in front of him.
Honolulu, the association gave away 300 masks to help people breathe.
"O'ahu getting ready for a big New Year's bang"
…Dr. Jeffrey Kam, an asthma and allergy specialist with
Straub Clinic and Hospital, said he passed out more than 2,000 filter masks last
Saturday at Ala Moana Center.
"People with respiratory problems may suffer increased breathing
difficulty when exposed to the irritant effects of firework smoke," Kam
Fireworks smoke contains a cocktail of chemicals, some of
them toxic. The major ingredients, sulfur and carbon, are mixed with
color-creating compounds like barium, lithium, and strontium, none of which are
easy on the lungs.
The American Lung Association Hawai'i chapter recognizes
the problem and is offering free filter maks, similar to the ones used by
"It's sort of like seeing a freight train coming," said Douglas Yee, past American Lung Association president and a current volunteer. "We have this problem that every year the city disappears under a cloud of smoke." 31.12.2003
"Have a blast the environment-friendly way"
bursting of fireworks had a direct impact on the suspended particulate matter (SPM)
values, which recorded an increase of three times the actual levels on Diwali
inform that high SPM values lead to greater risk of respiratory disorders and
ailments such as cancer, bronchitis, asthma, etc. 26.10.2003
"This Diwali make more light than sound"
Sharma an ENT specialist: "The higher level of suspended particles due to
bursting of crackers during Diwali causes eye, throat and nose problems.
Although many of us do not feel the immediate impact, these problems could
develop into serios health hazards." Agrees Dr. Talwar, pulmonary
specialist with Metro Hospitals, "Indeed, for millions of those suffering
from asthma, Diwali is not a festival of light and gaiety, but that of smoke,
coughing and wheezing. They need to hold on their inhalers which can help them
"This will take your breath away"
Delhi: For those of you with a deeper interest in what you are currently
breathing, here's the menu: twice the safe limit for Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) –
causes respiratory allergies; four times the safe limit for suspended
particulate matter; five times the safe limit for respiratory suspended
particulate matter; high amounts of sulphur dioxide and the dust trapped in the
Diwali, the fireworks will add carbon monoxide, oxides of sulphur, phosphorous
and nitrogen. These can cause respiratory allergy, dizziness, abdominal cramps,
vomiting, bloody diarrhoea, etc.
"Asthmatics brace themselves for D-Day"
Experts estimate that the level of pollutants, especially suspended particulate
matter (SPM), may double during the Divali holidays.
exact data is not available, it is clear that for the million-odd citizens
suffering from asthma and chronic respiratory problems in Mumbai, Divali is a
time to pull out the inhalers and extra medicines.
chest specialist Pramod Niphadkar is seeing extra patients who've come for their
emergency 'Divali dose'.
Niphadkar, who is also the president of the Asthma and Bronchitis Association of
India, says there is a 30% rise in the number of patients he sees
during this time.
Chowgule, chest specialist and executive director of the Indian Institute of
Environment Science at Kasturba Hospital, says she sees 50% more patients, and
these are serious patients.
lot of our old patients who have been cured come back at about this time,"
she says. According to her, while 17% of Mumbaikars suffer from asthma, 27% are
vulnerable to developing the illness.
"What you burn is what you breathe!"
you burst crackers, take a peep into the contents and its resultant health
SPM exposure: Headache and reduced mental acuity.
Dioxide and Nitrogen Dioxide: Respiratory allergies like asthma
decibel sound: Restlessness, anger, anxiety, allergic bronchitis, acute
exacerbation of bronchial asthma, chronic bronchitis
Irritation in the respiratory tract
Can damage kidneys, cause anaemia and increase blood pressure
After ingestion can affects central nervous system, can cause cancer of lungs
and kidneys, young children can suffer mental retardation and semi-permanent
brain damage by exposure
Human skin irritant and effects pulmonary system. Large amounts taken by mouth
may produce nausea, vomiting .
"Fireworks pose a threat for asthmatic children"
have found that fireworks can prove to be a health threat for children suffering
from asthma. The breathing in of the smoke and burned particulate of the
fireworks can trigger an asthma attack especially in children with severe
number of severe asthma attacks has been reported in the emergency section of many hospitals especially
around festivals like Diwali.
have also observed that some patients presented with respiratory distress or
heart failure after exposure to fireworks. Hence experts recommended that asthma
patients should be very careful on such festive occasions and try to
avoid using fireworks or seeing a firework display.
"Fireworks sales expected to be lower for New Year's – Fewer retailers have obtained licenses, and fewer people are expected to buy them"
good news (that fireworks sales expected to be lower for New Year's) to senior
citizens, young children and lung disease sufferers – those most susceptible
to respiratory problems or serious injury because of fireworks smoke", said
Gregg Kishaba, the American Lung Association of Hawaii's director of asthma
education…The association is offering free masks and coordinating kamaaina
rates at 13 hotels for those most at risk for breathing problems because of
fireworks smoke... Warren Tamamoto, a pulmonary physician at Kaiser Permanente,
said exposure to fireworks smoke can exacerbate symptoms of everything from
light asthma to emphysema.
"And now, even sparklers might be banned"
West Bengal Pollution Control Board and Kolkata Police have declared some of the
seemingly harmless firecrackers as potential air polluters.
WBPCB officials and environmentalists have pointed out that the gas produced by
a saap baaji or a rangmashal is more dangerous than crackers. "Firecrackers
usually contain compounds of sulpher and phosphorous. Rangmashal, saap baaji
etc. contain these and also compounds of aluminium and mercury, which are very
dangerous for health. These produce high chemical reaction and on inhalation
effects the respiratory tracks," said Nirmalya Banerjee,
environmentalist and member of the Loss Prevention Association of India. "Sometimes
the effects are felt after five or ten years too," he added.
"Enjoying a safe Diwali"
crackers could be a causative factor leading to numerous health hazards. Besides,
they enhance noise and air pollution levels. The harmful chemicals emitted
through smoke are known to cause asthma, allergic rhinitis, bronchitis and other
respiratory problems. Moreover, the noise and dazzling light could cause optical
as well as ENT-related problems. The blasting sounds caused by fire crackers
which send the decibel levels soaring instantaneously could cause permanent or
temporary impairment to the ear drums. All this is known to affect children,
pregnant women, asthmatics and senior citizens muche more than the rest of the
age group is the most affected?
infant below one year of age is most vulnerable as the structures of the ear are
very delicate. Besides, senior citizens are also quite vulnerable as the
degenerative process brought on by ageing has already set in. Moreover, people
with a heart condition, hypertension or hypotension and asthma could be faces
with problems that could manifest as fatigue, headaches, irritability etc.
"Fire in the Sky: A Global Plague – The Shots Heard 'Round the World" by Gar Smith
Hawai'i, the state Health Department conducted air samples during the New Year's
fireworks displays and reported that the pyrotechnics produced "as much as
ten times as much smoke as was recorded the previous year." Hospitals were
flooded with residents suffering from respiratory problems, and Health
Department Director Bruce Anderson condemned fireworks as "a serious health
HONOLULU ADVERTISER quoted a Health Department warning that fine-particle
pollutants from firworks "are especially dangerous because they penetrate
deeply into the lungs, aggravating heart and lung conditions, changing the body's
normal defenses against inhaled material and damaging lung tissue". Health
problems stemming from even short-term exposures were found to "last two to
"New Year'fireworks sully isle air"
Article about airborne particulates per cubic meter.
State Department of Health, 4.1.2002
blue murder about pollution?"
bronchitis, acute exacerbation of bronchial asthma, chronic bronchitis,
emphysema, COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases), allergic rhinitis,
laryngitis, sinusitis, pneumonia and common cold increase during this time,"
reports consultant chest physician and pulmonologist, Dr Narendra B Rawal, whose
patient-number doubles during Diwali. He adds to this ghastly picture, "Fireworks
is one of the provoking factors for childhood bronchial asthma."
Can Trigger Asthma Attacks"
The Ohio Public Radio and Television Statehouse News Bureau
with asthma often find fireworks can trigger an attack. In an interview with
Ohio Public Radio's Jo Ingles, one Columbus area allergist says fireworks can be
downright dangerous. Dr. Don McNeal says even smaller fireworks like sparklers
can bring on an asthma attack…"
can also hear a part of the radiointerview under
(Jo Ingles reports, 2:24)
(Jo Ingles reports, 2:24)
"Fireworks and Asthma: Deadly Combo"
the summer, parents worry about children and fireworks. Countless numbers of
children are injured each year while playing with fireworks, many of them
experiencing severe burns. However, parents now have another cause for concern,
as more evidence has surfaced regarding asthmatic children and fireworks.
to the December issue of the Annals of Allergy, fumes from fireworks can
aggravate pediatric asthma. In the article, Dr. Jack M. Becker of Temple
University detailed two instances of asthmatic children who had played with
fjreworks and the experienced life-threatening asthma attacks.
thirteen-year-old boy spent three days in an intensive care unit receiving
oxygen and asthma drugs after a fireworks display. In another incident, a
nine-year-old girl attending a Fourth of July picnic, died after an asthma
attack brought on by exposure to fumes from a sparkler. Researchers note that
many more cases likely exist, and they caution parents of asthmatic children to
exercise caution during fireworks celebrations. 22.6.2001
the homepage of the
American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology (AAAAI) you find under the
title "Fireworks may cause fatal asthma attacks" (Academy News: April 2001, EDUCATION, Clinical Research News http://www.aaaai.org/members/academynews/2001/04/clinical_research_news.stm)
among other things also the article "Fatal and near-fatal
asthma in children exposed to fireworks." of Becker JM, Iskandrian S,
Conkling J, Annals of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology, Dec 2000, 85(6 Pt 1)
p512-513: <<Inhalation of commbustion products produced by fireworks may
pose a serious health threat to children with asthma, despite the more common
concerns about firework-related burns and other injuries. Dr. Jack M. Becker of
Temple University Children's Medical Center in Philadelphia and colleagues
report on two cases of firework-associated exacerbations in asthmatic children.
note that there have been other cases of respiratory distress associated with
fireworks and that asthmatics should be very careful when using them or
observing any displays.>>
"Fireworks can spell death for asthmatic children" by Medindia Health News
But apart from the phenomenal cost that goes into fireworks we fail to realize
that fireworks are death sentences for the severely asthmatic people and the
worst affected are children who literally choke to death during these ironically
happy occasions. Almost all major hospitals across the country report an
increase in number of cases coming into their emergency rooms with acute
respiratory failure during these festivals… The death rate is appalling during
these festive times going up nearly thrice in some belts. Breathlessness was the
common feature in all cases. Some presented with status asthmaticus, severe
respiratory distress and cardiac failure. January 14,
January 14, 2001
"Festival of lights without fireworks"
is celebrating the most important festival in the Hindu calendar, Diwali, also
known as the Festival of Light. This year a campaign to stop the use of
firecrackers has intensified. Many schoolchildren in Delhi have taken part in a
vigorous public campaign, marching in rallies, displaying campaign posters and
making public pledges not to buy crackers. Campaigners say firecrackers worsen
existing air pollution by six to ten times. People with asthma and heart
diseases are amongst those who suffer as a result.
"DOH backing bill to regulate fireworks" by Hawaii Department of Health DOH Communications Office, Press Releases
of smoke and hazards generated by fireworks use cause serious health problems
for thousands in our community, particularly those suffering from asthma,
emphysema, chronic bronchitis and other respiratory or heart conditions",
notes Health Director Dr. Bruce Anderson. "In many cases it causes serious
pain and discomfort." 16.2.2000
"Oahu New Year's air dangerously polluted"
Emergency Services workers reported that Oahu averaged a fireworks injury or
respiratory distress case every 34 minutes New Year's Eve and New Year's Day.
"What a blast! Fireworks big bang – One legislator calls it ammunition on his position"
…About 10 p.m., the theatre was cleared after the fire
alarm went off, state Sen. Dal Kawamoto said. "The (fireworks) smoke
outside went into the vents. It set off the alarm."
"Poll: 55% majority favors fireworks ban – Those most in favor are in the 60-plus age group, while young adults, 18-29, are the most opposed."
...When the clock strikes midnight on Dec. 31, Joe Lew, a University of Hawaii English literature professor, likely will be hunkered down in his sixth-floor Waikiki apartment trying to keep out the New Year's Eve fireworks smoke. "I will probably close up my apartment as tightly as possible and run the air conditioner and air filter," Lew said. "I know a lot of people with asthma who are severely affected, and I have allergies that are set off."
(You can see in this article the result of the poll.)
"No happy Diwali for asthma patients"
Pramod Niphadkar, asthma consultant, said fire crackers when burnt release
pollutants like sulphur dioxide, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, managanese and
even cadmium, which damage the respiratory tract. For asthma patients, who
already have hyperactive airways, these pollutants further irritate the
bronchial mucosa and swell up the inner linings of the respiratory tract. This
causes spasms in the patients, triggering off asthma attacks, informed Dr
Niphadkar. In some cases, when the air becomes thick with smoke, patients are
unable to breathe on their own and may even have to be hospitalised.
Asthma and Bronchitis Association of India has been trying to create awareness
that one person's idea of fun could well be an asthma patient's nightmare.
Star-Bulletin , Letters
to the Editor, (die Leserbriefe sind zum Teil von Menschen verfasst, die
, Letters to the Editor, (die Leserbriefe sind zum Teil von Menschen verfasst, die selber an Asthma leiden)
31, 1999: <<...I am very worried about how the end of this year is going to
turn out for the ones who, like me, suffer from asthma and bronchitis...Some of
my neighbos do not know how hard it is for people like me to breathe. I would
have liked to celebrate my 35th birthday on Friday with all my friends and
family...but I must stay at home, locked inside my house, unable to enjoy the
new year and wondering if there is such a thing called a smoke-free birthday...
Ann Teruya>> and <<...Our state
constitution declares a right to a healthy environment for citizens, and we
depend on elected officials to respond and correct the stunning deteriorations
caused by explosions from well before Christmas to weeks after New Year’s Day,
which cause painful noise, respiratory illness, and loss by fire and injury to
many residents... Steven Lee Montgomery>> à
January 5, 2000: <<…Too bad the lungs of babies will be
contaminated with the deadly smoke of fireworks. The need to light
firecrackers seems to be as addictive as needing to have another cigarette.
Jack A. Fiero Sr.>>
January 7, 2000: <<On New Year's Eve I found myself
imprisoned in my house with a wife with a chronic lung condition. The
houses jurst across the street disappeared in a yellow haze and the acrid
smell of explosives filled the air inside the house as well as out,
despite filters and air conditioners. Some idiot near us was setting off
explosives louder than those I remember from Vietnam. They actually shook
our house… Ted meeker, Kaneohe>> à
on Diwali worsens asthma: <<Firecrackers contain 75% potassium nitrate,
15% carbon and 10% sulphur. When potassium nitrate, which works as a strong
oxidising agent, burns along with carbon and sulphur it releases noxious gases
such as carbon dioxide and sulphur dioxide. "These irritate the delicate
linings of the airways that carry oxygen to the lungs and lead to asthma attacks,''
says Dr Niphadkar, who receives 25% more asthmatic patients at his clinic during
Diwali… "From October to February, we see at least 30 to 40% more cases
of asthma, bronchitis and wheezing,'' says family physician Virsen Ruparel who
runs a polyclinic at Colaba…>> (The Times of
India Thursday 30 October 1997 By Sameera Khan)
Reference: Light blue touch paper and retire, Clark_H, ATMOSPHERIC ENVIRONMENT,
1997, Vol.31, No.17, pp.2893-2894.
Although we have done our best to ensure the accuracy of the
informations, it is of course possible that we could have made errors.